DNA purification is one of the most commonly used and crucial processes in molecular science. The purpose of DNA purification is to isolate the desired genetic material, chromosomal materials from contaminants (proteins, cell membranes, and RNA). This is an essential step in virtually all molecular applications and must be carried out correctly to obtain high-quality, usable DNA.
There are a variety of options for DNA purification. The selection is based on a variety of factors, such as the starting materials and downstream applications, costs and time limitations. The most common genomic and plasmid DNA purification procedures include chemical treatment, enzymatic digestion or mechanical destruction of cell samples or tissue followed by salting-out of proteins and precipitation of the DNA with ethanol.
Ethanol precipitation is a cost-effective simple and quick method of desalting and concentration DNA. DNA molecules aggregate in the presence of monovalent cations like sodium, and are then precipitated out of solution using high levels of ethanol. This technique permits the removal of salts, organic compounds and other impurities from a sample. It is often used in conjunction with other purification techniques.
Another popular method for DNA purification is anion exchange chromatography. DNA in a solution is bound to positively charged resins through the interaction between the negatively charged DNA phosphate backbone Polymerase chain reaction as well as the positively charged surface molecules of the resin. During the binding and washing steps in the process, contaminating molecules are eliminated from the DNA via rigorous wash steps, and then the DNA that is purified is eluted under low salt conditions.